Category Archives: issue 09

From Drop City to the African hackerspace

Abstract: The modernity of the 'ad-hoc’ approach enhanced by the American counter-culture of the Sixties is proved by the numerous events recently dedicated to the topic. If the adhocracy is the opposite of the strict hierarchical and bureaucratic organizations, adhocism represents the art of improvisation, of being able to find rapid solutions in critic situations, according to the typical  lifestyle attitude of the Southern parts of the world, where the Do It Yourself practises represent a necessary daily exercise, that nowadays is acquiring an important variable, represented by the democratisation of information technologies and of relation nets. Therefore, the long wave of community of makers has reached Africa as well, thus giving life to something extremely original.

The complete version of this article is available only in Italian.

Ziad Zitoun from Tunisia

Ziad Zitoun is a contemporary Tunisian artist. He does a interdisciplinary work with videoart, installations and mixed-medias. He starts his creations in 2004 with Videoart. He follow with videodance works, photography and mixed-medias documents. Ziad Zitoun composes about recurrent socials thematics of immigrants & human rights.
His semantic turn around topics of migrants rights, trans-borders movements, refugees history… those works speaks about human rights and condition of people in movement. The author lines up with minimal and abstract forms. In that direction he studies about Zelij patterns, stamping & ceramics. Ziad Zitoun mix languages for gathering lines and patterns to allow a social message with a strong visual narration.

Thematics of inspiration by Ziad Zitoun revolves around rights of migrants, trans-borders movements & refugee Asylum. His works speak about familial separation, stigmatization and social invisibility that produce clandestinity life. Ziad Zitoun gives thoughts on the South-North relations and be testimonies of persons who live without dignity, without fundamental rights (health, work, education).

The author speak about them people who try to survive, persecuted only for the fact they are ‘illegals’. Every year, thousands of people from all over the world, afflicted by economic, social and political hardship. They escape from wars, dictators governments or misery. They migrate to Europe in attempt to attain better living standards. Every day a lot of people perish on the way.

Ziad Zitoun studies related social problems and it transcribe it in contemporary art domain for create aesthetic of migration. Art has for centuries been deeply estimated by the presence of immigrant artists and them fresh ideas. Today, more than ever before, the population reflects global patterns of migration, and this is evident in the art add a value of diversity in in our contemporary societies.

Visual arts

“I create visual narrations and construct a strong social message. I’ m using expressive textures, which are combined with the main figurative motifs as ornaments as Zelij patterns and african tooling. I’ m always turning around the idea of border, the wall, the line. Adding textures helps me to express feelings about these concepts.” said Ziad Zitoun, “An intense colors work on playing with bi or tricolor compositions. With this chromatic game, I covering surface with set of geometrically organized tiles inspirited by Zelij architectures and russian constructivism works. I use rock, iron fence and wall pictures. That give me the chance to transfer the feelings of someone who is in front of a wall. I wish to express feelings of someone in the situation of crossing a border. I try to express the difficulties that you can feel when you see something locked and when you try to overpass this situation.”

Photography

“Photography permits me a deconstruction of space, transcribe an ambient of urban square, and create extended perception of a location. My preferred location is North African & Mediterranean area. Tunisia, Algeria or Libya is wonderful unknown regions of the world. I capture rarely viewed scenes and environments and present them in a dynamic way.” said Ziad Zitoun.
“Photography is a powerful medium it opens our point of view, give visibility to unknown areas & change our perception of reality. Do pictures is as open a window, create a bridge and permit new connection between the subject and the viewer. Photography can break a thousand barriers & invite you to explore the world, experiencing other cultures, be concerned & sensitive to the world around us. It helps in opening up our mind. I capture scenes and events as I see them and to share with others the beauty and diversity of the world I’ve seen.”

“Mediterranean – Shared & Divided” is visual art project about in the Mediterranean area. The interdisciplinary project explore photography for create contemporary motions of this space. Between Sarajevo, Tunisia, Istanbul and Cairo. “Mediterranean – Shared & Divided” aims to promote a dialogue among communities sharing commons backgrounds. In a actual fragmentation of Mediterranean belt due of an hard european migration politic, artists propose new visual artworks for contribute to pluralism, diversity and multiculturalism dialogue.

http://www.ziadzitoun.com

http://ziadzitoun.blogspot.com/

http://www.youtube.com/user/simbad38

Design & Production in Italy from ‘Miracolo Economico’ to Present

Abstract: The history of Italian design is characterised by a variety of changes gradually occurring within the relationship design-production. These changes are inherently connected to the structural conditions of the Italian industrial fabric, to the technological development, to the economical changes and to the changing conditions of the design demand and offer both in Italy and all over the world. The present chronicle considers Milan and its surroundings as the centre of a series of events that made the Italian design reach the point that it is still maintaining at a worldly level. Moreover, it takes into account the productive sector of furniture and furnishing accessories, which mainly identify Italian design. As any facts revision, also this one has privileged some aspects and excluded some others, in order to reach its own significance.

The complete version of this article is available only in Italian.


Interview with Denis Santachiara

Paola Proverbio: The 1985 exhibit “La Neomerce. Il design dell’invenzione e dell’estasi artificiale”, created by you and supported by Montedison’s “Progetto Cultura”, was definitely paradigmatic, as you clearly showed the way towards a new design based on ‘soft’ electronic and computer technologies, of which you saw sensorial and poetical elements. After may years, what direction you envision for design?

Denis Santachiara: The most important thing in design is the presence of some strong motivation, of a context constantly renovated by new discoveries – as it was in the 1960s with plastic materials. Differently from other arts, design is not an autarchic form of expression. It is a complex system. Today I still believe the future of design is strictly connected to the development of technology. The only limit is that while using technology design is more concerned with materials than with its potential influence on the productive process; actually, such process is the main factor of change, as it determines the cultural configuration of objects, and not merely their shapes.
As soon as 1986, when I contributed with Alberto Meda to the editing of Ezio Manzini’s  book, La materia dell’invenzione (1986), I started reflecting on diversified seriality. It has been a long time, then, since I first saw the web as an environment offering a chance for real developments in design. This belief brought me to the creation, with Tiziana Cippelletti and Paolo Trezzi, of Monastero Santachiara in September 2004.

Tell us more about this venture.

The original idea was to encourage rapid manufacturing in less than avant-garde businesses, acting in many different ways. I also concocted a project for an exhibit at the Milan Triennale, as I had done for “La Neomerce”. I clarified in an article this idea (Tessa, R., 2005), in relation to the so-called Personal Factory. However, I was too far ahead of the times, and the operation could not be continued. Even today, the web is still perceived by businesses as a mere communication device, a tool for advertisement and image-building, and not as a working environment, while many designers – and especially those of the last generation – are absolutely up to date with this shift. It is clear, then, that the design world has not yet established an actual connection with the world of the web. I believe when this encounter happens, it will facilitate the birth of a new context of renovation for design; maybe times are just not ripe yet.

In the exhibit “Principia. Stanze e sostanze delle arti prossime” at the 2011 Fuorisalone in Milan, though, you foregrounded this important approach to design, something people have been talking about for at least a decade.

Yes. That was for me another manifesto-exhibit, a post-media event through which I wanted to show another possible future development for design; I chose several principia ruling the disciplines connected with technology, and I put designers in front of a question, in order to understand in which direction design itself should be headed. So again I insisted on the meaning and importance of the Personal Factory, since through it design can express new linguistic and poetic moods, while rapid manufacturing makes it possible to produce a piece or a thousand at the same unit cost, that is the main goal of mass personalization.

Mass personalization, of course, but in some cases self-production, as well. As you have pointed out, it is possible to reach a total autarchy of commodities, based on open-source strategies. In 2007 you installed a 3-D printer in your workshop, and you began creating models. Can you tell us more about your direct experience with both production and these upcoming forms of project?

As a matter of fact, I go in many different directions, as I try to take advantage of all the opportunities opportunities offered by this new context: Open Search Design, Co-design, Open design, post-serial Design On-demand. As for Open-search design, in 2010 I conceived a motorcycle utility which contains GPS, electronic toll collection system and charger. I designed it for my motorcycle, but once the project is available online, clients can download the math from the website and print it out in ABS format at the closest service using 3-D printers. Through a simple parametric software, you can change the math and customize the attachment based on the specifics of your vehicle and also your personal taste, by adding text and images.
The same is true for a set of glasses I designed, with both a customized mount and a simplified assembling process, in order to make every step compatible with the entire production system.
The interesting side of such system is that you do not just print models, but actual objects of immediate use: for instance, I recently printed a metal door handle. As for co-design and co-creation, I designed a set of shelves allowing clients to adjust them based on their needs and taste. The project was chosen by Quirky (www.quirky.com), a New York-based online platform selling everyday objects. Through the community, designers, consumers and business associates rate the products and suggest possible improvements, from colors to prices. After this pre-marketing stage, Quirky decides whether to produce the object and sell it through its website and its partners, including Amazon, Apple etc.
As for open design, I joined forces with Campeggi to create “Santapouf PRO” (2010), a soft, colored, customizable ottoman with a built-in inflatable emergency bed. My inspiration was the “continuous profile” sculpture by Giuseppe Bertelli (1900-1974), who during the regime believed in the possibility of one head thinking for everybody; in a democratic, open, technological, liquid, connected society, each of us thinks with his or her head. My idea was to use CNC (computer numerical control) technology to cut polyurethane. For now, my ‘pouf’ has my own profile, but it can take on the face of each client. You just need to send your profile to us through smartphone, e-mail and so on. Our goal is to suggest an idea of design which could be customized without getting outside the price range of standard industrial products.
Another possibility I explored is design on-demand: I was recently asked to make a project for an urn (architects have always designed family tombs, while industrial designer have created customized family urns). In my project, you just need to send some pictures to have one made with your own face. The first urn has a primary shape on which the ‘client’s’ features are added; the second is a transparent cylinder containing many small boxes that can be given out to relatives and friends. It is obviously a challenging, thought-provoking matter, but it concerns all of us.


Paola Proverbio, Politecnico di Milano – paola.proverbio@polimi.it

This interview was taken during a conversation with Denis Santachiara for the research published in: Proverbio, P. (2012). Denis Santachiara. In Pagliardini, V. (ED), I Protagonisti del Design. IT: Milan. Hachette.

www.hachette-fascicoli.it

References

Manzini, E. (1986). La materia dell’invenzione. Milano, IT: Arcadia

Tessa, R. (2005, April, 13). Nuove tecnologie, una seconda rivoluzione per il design. La Repubblica. 

Interview with Odoardo Fioravanti

Marinella Ferrara: What changes have taken place in the profession of the 3rd millennium young designer, in comparison with the past, with the 1960s? Do you think that the present production delocalization and market globalization can affect the traditional relationship between design and industry? In what way?

Odoardo Fioravanti: The designer’s job has radically changed, for different reasons. On the one hand, the new design degrees have led to a deeper awareness of design and to an education focalized on the productive process. This, according to some people, can cause a lack of the project-based culture and also a proliferation of design related topics in unconventional sectors and manners.

On the other hand, the industry and production have undergone deep changes. The big firms’ crisis and the grinding of the productive system into a sort of cloud containing a lot of new little companies wanting to exploit design, have made a designer’s life not easy. In most cases, these little companies want to go into design only because they’ve ‘heard of it’. Therefore, we have to go back to the start and explain why it is necessary to spread the culture and the philosophy of design in the industrial world: we need a sort of micro-evangelization.

Most of the firms do not produce, they are just editors, who own strong marketing skills. The main theme here is the relation, not the production, between who invents the products and the industry. The debate, in the end, comes down to marketing and saleability based on the goods’ appeal.

It must be also said that the delocalization of the industrial production represents an epoch-making change for a certain kind of goods, those goods that, on the basis of a dimension/cost ratio, can easily and inexpensively be carried around. This contributes to the creation of a new class of producers who do not mind producing low cost goods and selling them at very low prices, in order to stimulate purchases even in times of constant crisis.

Besides, a sort of communicative magma surrounds design nowadays, spreading ideas and projects, and merging together different ideas, thus making thoughts univocal. A sort of a koiné of languages that filters projects, in order to get rid of those that are not cool or communicatively effective. But this is a ‘baby’ communication,…

Do you still believe in the role of the industry?

I strongly believe that in the definition ‘industrial design’ both words are vital. The design prepares a message, gives a shape to a thought, not only a functional one, and the industry allows the circulation and the development of this thought on a mass-market scale. This does not exclude the presence of new productive patterns such as those based on the 3D printers and the ‘makers’ world. But the industry is still the place for a large-scale production of goods, where it is still possible to meet the people’s demands with a commitment to research, to resource optimization, to a democratic production. Snow, my chair for Pedrali, has a very low price and such a wide distribution that could be impossible without the help of a real industry.

Have there been any changes in the company requirements for the designers?

The demands have changed, of course. People look for projects that can easily be put into production and easily be taken in by the market. They want market-ready projects, so contemporary as to seem they’re coming out of the near past: low cost projects that can easily be understood and that can stimulate compulsive purchases. There is no time to wait for the projects to be developed, to find their right collocation. Very few companies have their own competence to develop the products; therefore the designers have to prepare projects that are ready for production. We need to use an engineering approach, to understand the technological problems, to find suppliers and contractors on behalf of the firm, etc. As if part of the company were substituted by the designers’ studios. So a designer is not only the one who designs and has good ideas, but one who does think from the processes and the contacts he has with the artisans.

Are there more responsibilities for a designer now?

I don’t know if it has to do with responsibility, but there is much more work during the phase preceding the meeting with the firms, definitely. One has to go to the meeting with quite clear ideas, with a story ready to be sold, with a very mature idea of whatthe production and the distribution will be like. In short, we sell a project turnkey and often the firms only have simply to decide whether to invest in a ready idea. This has little to do with the history of Italian design, where the main part of the productive development has always been carried out in collaboration between the industry and the designer, by working hard on prototypes and models.

What changes have recently been introduced in your job thanks to the new digital, fast making and rapid prototyping technologies?

The first impact of rapid prototyping has to do with a change in speed when it comes to creatingthree-dimensional models of a project. Something that was unconceivable twenty years ago now has become usual in this job. It is very rare for the prototypes to be hand-made and often, whether to produce an object or not, is decided by looking at the image coming out from a 3D printer.

The real challenge introduced by these new techniques is linked to the possibility of making it all low cost. There are still obstacles connected to the cost of the machines, the interface usability, the uniformity in the quality of the results (generally there always is something that needs adjusting). When the 3D printers will become similar to the other domestic appliances, itwill be cheap to buy one, easy to use it and to look after its maintenance, fast to download a file from the Internet for the 3D and print a wished object ourselves, just as today we can buy and listen to a musical track online.

What do you think about the various forms of self-production?

I think it is a sort of ‘warm up’ before entering the world of industry. I did it, too, sometimes, two in particular: the lamp Shift and the roncola that I designed for my exhibition at Triennale di Milano. Self-production is a bit like a gym that allows us to learn different aspects of the productive system. Besides, it allows giving shape to some projects that would never see the light otherwise, because they do not fit in the companies’ selection. It makes me think to a sort of a relief valve of the world of ideas: now and then, when the internal pressure is excessive, there is a leak of self-produced objects. Often, young designers use self-production in order to show their skills, since it is very hard to find industries that commission new projects. But I still think that self-production is so different from industrial production: self-production may create a niche market and micro-economies, whereas the industry is connected to a macro-economic world that can to reach the masses.

What do you think about the financial capital penetration in the designing firms, with a new role for the management?

The industry was born out of craft and design was born out of industry, therefore design was born also out of craft. This link is undeniable. Today there are rumours about the ‘new craft’. The most careful people have never forgotten craft and to call it ‘new’ seems to me just a way to make it still ‘fashionable’. In such a critical moment for the industry, the chance to start design projects through a handmade draw-plate is a good solution. It must be remembered first, that craft has always had a vital role inside Italian industry:think about the furniture draw-plate where most of the products have a high component of craftwork. We could therefore conclude that Italian industry has never been totally industrial; instead, it has been half-industrial. Today, after Sennet’s works, we produce handicrafts that were initially thought for the industrial processes. But this, in my opinion, is a pointless discussion. Who’s able to separate with a neat line craft from design craft?

Interview with Francisco Gomez Paz

Marinella Ferrara: What changes have taken place in the profession of the 3rd millennium young designer, in comparison with the past, with the 1960s? Do you think that the present production delocalization and market globalization can affect the traditional relationship between design and industry? In what way?

Francisco Gomez Paz: I reckon I am lucky to work with design oriented Italian firms, where the company structure still allows designers to discuss and to share the risks with the managers. In my daily life, I work in direct contact even with the supplying firms who are involved in the project process. These artisans, contracting producers or technology and material suppliers all have an important role in the project development, since by talking and working together with them, we are often able to find the perfect solution for any production problem. As it happened, for example, with the table Ovidio, for the firm Danese: the project was developed thanks to an artisan of Danese, who is an expert in plate bending technology. What happened was, we had thought of a possible solution and thanks to his skills, we found a good solution for the leg and its joint in the table top, thus transforming a graphical idea into a structural project. With the help of technology we devised a geometrical structure, highly characterised by corners and angles, which provides the table with shifting profiles as the observer’s point of view changes.

Nowadays a lot is changing. Companies and contractors are facing hard times because of the economical crisis. The delocalization is breaking that virtuous circle, (one of the strengths of Italian design), of which the artisan-supplier is the weakest link.

Because of the delocalization, designers are lacking a relationship with the matter. Therefore, we have to do something in order to get this necessary relationship back.  Verifying a project by means of a model and a prototype is really important. I remember that, when I was designing Omero, a curious magazine rack, produced by Driade, in order to check its shape and its respondency to the function (the magazines fit into place in between the rings), I made a first wooden prototype with a lathe. Now my studio is better furnished, it has a small laboratory where my colleagues and I make the models that allow us to verify the technical and formal solutions.

What changes have recently been introduced in your job thanks to the new digital, fast making and rapid prototyping technologies?

Nowadays, the rapid prototyping tools are indispensable for a designer. For example, not only did I buy for my studio the most common tools, but even a 3D printer and Arduino, an open source framework, so that we can make studio models or prototypes of some small details which are important for the project development. I often tell the story of Hope, a lamp system, born as a new interpretation of the Bohemian crystal chandelier that Paolo Rizzatto and I projected for Luceplan. While developing the project it was important to verify the device by which the lenses, arranged around the light source, refract light. The weekend before the definitive agreement to put into production Hope components, I made a prototype of the lens in my lab, which changed the original project, with a remarkable improvement of the Hope design. The prototype made by means of a numerically controlled milling cutter was able to convey the formal and visual idea of a ‘metacrystal’ sheet, ultra thin, light, transparent and shiny, with microprisms in the internal surface, that could catch and refract the light, while reproducing at the same time all the optical qualities of the fine and thick crystal. The Monday after, thanks to the physical model that I made, it was easy for the firm managers to understad my intent and change their minds about the productive technology to be adopted. The first prototype of Sinapse was made in my laboratory, too.

The actual revolution is, nowadays, the ability to find information and acquire knowledge easily. For instance, we bought the 3D printer for the studio and then we found a video online, with the instructions to modify some of its functions. We learnt quickly and after that we’ve been able to modify the printer according to our particular purposes. That access to information is made so easy today is very important.

When I lived in Argentina, Internet wasn’t so widespread. In an isolated place, where design was not a common activity, the lack of information was a problem for me.

Do you still believe in the role of the industry?

Yes, I really do. Even if today this role is being strained. Because of instability and the crisis in the economy many companies are afraid of investments.

Have there been any changes in the company requirements for the designers? Are there more responsibilities for a designer now?

Designers have always had big responsibilities towards the companies they work with and towards the ‘human beings’. I prefer this word rather than ‘customers’ or ‘market’. Because, in my opinion, a designer understands little of the market but can understand very well the human beings, their primary and secondary needs, and their relationship with an object in terms of how well it can perform its function.

In the past, though, there were wider margins for error. Today we are witnessing the collapse of a general system. Firms, at lest the ones I work with, put into production fewer products, while demanding more breadth.

We need to be more aware of what we’re doing and where we’re going. Both designers and firms, as parts of our society, share big responsibilities: that kind of responsibility which can make our species go further ahead, towards new paths. One of the projects that have made me more aware of mankind was the Solar Bottle projected with Alberto Meda. This low cost container, that is able to disinfect water for those people who are exposed to contaminated waters, made me think about mankind’s primary needs. But still, even today, after so many improvements, having sorted most of the technical aspects and having developed good ideas for the business model, the project hasn’t found a possibility for production.

What do you think about the various forms of self-production? Do you believe in the possibility of self-management (on the part of the designers) of part or the whole project-production-distribution-selling process? Do think that self-production can lead to an economic development, at least a local one?

I believe in a designer’s ability to manage some parts of the process. This can happen for small productions. To project and to make small productions is possible for a designer, is something belonging to his skills. To sell is not. Still, it is not so difficult to sell 3 or 4 pieces if you have contacts with the sellers, if go to the fairs or online. A lot of my colleagues are wondering whether they should try this way. Self-production can be a big revolution, a quick-start for young designers who want to go into the job. The concept of self-production becomes interesting if linked to the personalization of a product or to the return to the craftsmanship of some products, for some firms who work in a complementary way with the industry. But distribution is a world, which is very far from the designer’s. It is the missing link in this new vision of the self-producing system. When the distributors will notice this opportunity, new prospects will arise that may put the small firms into trouble.

What do you think about the financial capital penetration in the designing firms, with a new role for the management?

The penetration of financial capital may prove very risky for Italian design, which is characterised by the relationship with the people, by the dialogue; which has never based its logics on the business plan, on the stiff management of time and resources; and which has never looked so much at marketing but has instead worked on the ideas, often even on illusions. It’ll depend on to what extent the venture capital will want to go in the design management.

There is a lot of talk about the new artisan. Do you think he could be involved in design?

Artisans are responsible for most of Italy’s beauty. The world of craft is made of people who do not sleep because they want to do better. From people who work with their hands, to those who invest on new machinery, who work with circuits. A part of my work is like that of the artisan who works with his hands and mind. But also with technology, as I did with my lamp Nothing, a handicraft that uses new technologies. It is strange that in Italy there is no government policy that helps to strengthen an artisan’s work by means of the technological innovation. It’s a shame because, for the reasons that I just mentioned, most of our craftsmanship will disappear in a few years.

Design & Production Today

Within the specific outlook of Italian design, how has the relationship design-production evolved? What are the differences between the past and today?

These are some of the questions asked, that the section Close up of number 9 attempts to answer. For this purpose, we will present a brief chronicle of Italian design, focusing on the relationship design-industry since the  economic miracle years until today. In addition to the chronicle, there is a n interpretation of  the current events through the interview to 3 multi-awarded designers: Denis Santachiara, internationally notable for his approach to design taking inspiration from the communication and performance potentialities of technologies, promoter and author of the ‘technical and poetic neo design’ of the Eighties; Francisco Gomez Paz, Argentian living in Italy, where he works in cooperation with the greatest Italian design centred companies; and the young Odoardo Fioravanti awarded with the prize ‘Compasso d’Oro 2011’, with a promising career ahead.

Papairlines Inaugural Flight from Greece

Abstract: Vasso, Costas and Loukas created papairlines, a creative platform that focuses on exposing the methodologies and process behind all things designed. This article describes their initial steps through 'Once Upon A Sponge' project in order to showcase how creativity and teamwork can be used as assets to overcome budget constrains and lack of recourses. Based on the public’s response the project also illustrates the outreach of design in everyday life.

Summer of 2011 was a rather uncertain time in Greece. It was when Vasso and Costas had returned from abroad and started rediscovering the centre of Athens. Through their walks, observing people behaviors and everyday scenarios, they were wondering how design could intervene to create new opportunities. Loukas, still based in London, kept them in the loop with the latest and greatest design news from a location where creativity is already embedded as a tool in contemporary culture.

A few weeks later, all three met and started discussing ways to expose the new directions in design to the public. In the Greek scene where design is mostly connected with furniture and interior, there seemed to be plenty of space to start talking about new genres such as critical, service, innovation and experience design.

To make their ideas travel, they decided to create the first no-budget airline and called it Papairlines. Fleet made of paper and ideas ready to materialize, they set out to communicate the role of design as a catalyst for change in all aspects of our everyday lives. Sounds grand? Well actually, they are taking one step at a time. The airline concept is indicative of budget limitations but full of creative energy to spread a positive message. Paper planes carry a childhood reference, a time when all was possible and thinking was unbiased.

For their first initiative they developed and curated an exhibition where Greek and international designers would respond to a common brief; to create and construct unexpected functional objects made out of the iconic green-yellow kitchen sponge. The project was called ‘Once Upon A Sponge’. Not knowing what to expect in response, they trusted that designers would be intrigued and get creative. The designer submissions revealed that design thinking offers realistic answers to everyday situations, not just on form and function, but also on emotion, social behaviors and underlying meaning.

Papairlines had been invited to present the project in metamatic:taf, a gallery in Monastiraki, the heart of Athens, that doubles as a cultural and social space for Athenians and tourists alike. Baring in mind that papairlines crew had the expectation to produce a rich visual and emotional experience for the public and budget was limited, things got interesting.

On these grounds, papairlines set out to look for sponsors, volunteers, people in a mood to help and creative solutions for the whole setup. Unsurprisingly, sponsorships came easier in kind rather than cash, which made for an intricate exercise in resourcefulness. They ended up with 40 meters of uncut sponge, 1200 single kitchen sponges and 20 of so electrical appliances to play with. The uncut sponge turned into sofas and wall cladding, the kitchen sponges into ‘pixels’ for an interactive installation and appliances took center stage to become plinths. Whitewashed to retain a domestic and fun feel, the electric appliances, which were on their way to the recycling factory, made a one-month stop in the gallery space before being disassembled.

On the press and communication side of things, Papairlines teamed up with a music TV channel and an online portal, both of which promoted the exhibition on a regular basis. Papairlines developed a form of barter with parties interested to contribute, exchanging services without exchanging money, helping each other even in times where means are scarce.

‘Once Upon A Sponge’ was carefully crafted to offer visitors not only a complete experience but also food for thought. The exhibition identity, graphics and layout were developed holistically. The presented work, as a collection, highlighted the process behind design and the diversity of design thinking regardless of the material-based common origin. The exploration of material properties and manufacturing techniques offered visitors an insight on ‘how things are made’. In a wider sense, the project outcome illustrates how design can be used as a research tool to create new stories and scenarios around a specific constrain. Collectively, creative thinking generated a positive impression to the visitors, evident by the feedback received through social media and Check-in message board interactive installation pictures. A casual reading room with relevant literature was also at hand for anyone requiring more information on the theoretical background of the project.

The exhibition run from the 10th of May to 16th of June 2012 at metamatic:taf and was afterwards presented at the ‘Santorini Biennale of Arts’ during the summer. For the Biennale, the setup concept moved along the same lines, using found materials and available resources; fortunately a few cable reels did the job. The project was also presented in the international conference ‘Artist in Industry: the role of design in the digital age’ in Bucharest discussing how an object can tell a story, how creative thinking can contribute to solving everyday problems, whether constraints can act as a stepping stone for something new and if design today can take on a more active role.

‘Once Upon A Sponge’ was developed with a shoestring budget and plenty of love, gaining loads of friends and fans along the way. Its success and outreach not only comes to prove that one has to be resourceful, proactive and sometimes embrace uncertainty to make things happen, but also that design can be used as a creative and strategic tool forming an integral part of our everyday life.

Costas Bissas, Vasso Asfi and Loukas Angelou are papairlines co-director – papairlines@gmail.com

www.papairlines.org

Start-up Design. A new way to enter the market according to the Israeli experience

Abstract: This article begins with Ely Rozenberg’s personal experience, that led him to move to Italy early in his design career. The thought on his experience leads to some considerations on the difficult integration of young designers in the work market and a look at what is currently characterizing design in Israel: the foundation of numerous design start-ups. Case histories presented can bring valuable advice to young designers.

In 1998, a year after my degree at Bezalel Academy of Art & Design in Jerusalem, some circumstances in my life led me to Rome.
Beside a few personal items, I brought with me a ‘luminous thread’ that had then recently been invented and produced by Elam, an Israeli company. I was looking forward to applying this new invention to design and to exhibit it at FuoriSalone di Milano before other design stars could get hold of it. So, I invited two colleagues for this mission, Alessandro Bianchini and Michael Garelik, one Italian and the other Israeli, and together we started our self-production: from the luminous thread came out, above all, ambient lamps. We were convinced that we needed to go to Milan with a dozen of ready pieces in order to satisfy the requests of the market. One day, while I was exploring the window streets of design in Milan, I found a space in Via Solferino, two metres away from that of the Dutch group Droog Design (when they were at the top of their fame). We did some slides of the lamps, which I personally brought to the editorial offices of the main design magazines and we prepared hundreds of prints and illustrative cards.

The debut was a success, a lot of visitors, positive reactions, but without a term of comparison we did not realize it fully. One night – I remember – we kindly sent away two visitors because we were tired and wanted to go to dinner. On the way out I met a friend from Milan and she told me: «Do you know those two people who have just left your exhibition?» – «No, I don’t» – I answered. «They are Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana!» At that time I didn’t even know who they were. Actually, that week a lot of international design stars visited us, but we couldn’t recognize many of them.

During the exhibition we didn’t sell anything, we took all our stuff back with us and we were quite disappointed. But we collected a lot of journalists, gallery and shop owners’ names and little by little, during the next months, prestigious shops, such as Moss Gallery in New York, ordered the lamps and they started to appear on several magazines. Some time later, a famous firm contacted us with an offer: they wanted us to ‘give’ them one of our lamps, which would then enter their production. We made a quick calculation and it seemed that is was an offer we had to seize immediately, since marketing wasn’t our vocation and the sales barely covered the high costs of the exhibition in Milan. Selling the lamp to that firm would have allowed us to ‘be free’ to look for a new adventure. We came out of that experience aware that in order to charge again as small producers we had to find something really different from the products that already existed, if we wanted to justify our undertaking. And even with a winning idea we knew that in order to be a good producer, having a good design is not enough, in fact, design is only a small part of the organization, whereas communication, logistics and distribution are the big ‘problem’. A product is like a child. After you give birth to it (could be a painful delivery but soon it’s over anyway), you have to look after it for years, and in the meantime you have to think about how to help its growth in this world. Bearing this in mind, you do not feel free to have more ‘children’. My awareness made me really careful up to the present, keeping me from going into self-production again. Since then, many years have gone and I’ve had many other adventures and rewards – prestigious prizes and products that I designed have been ‘adopted’ by the world of production. Nonetheless, the pleasure of opening an exhibition, with innovative products, never seen before, in the heart of FuoriSalone di Milano and give out the price lists to curious and enthusiast shop owners, coming from all over the world, still tempts me. I couldn’t swear I don’t want to repeat this crazy adventure!

Self-production

As for the term self-production, in Italy, I’ve always perceived it as a synonym of something not very serious, when uttered by professionals. None of them thinks it is a concrete and reliable thing. It has always been considered as a moment of fun for those young designers who try to show off and after 1 year or 2 disappear with their stand. The real world belongs to the eminent owners of family firms who have a true, recognized industrial production.
But, who can remember that the golden generation of Italian design numbers several designer-entrepreneurs who at the same time projected their products?
Just to mention some of them: Ernesto Gismondi with Artemide, Paolo Targetti with Targetti Sankey, Enrico Baleri with Baleri Italia, Gino Sarfatti with Arteluce, Riccardo Sarfatti and Paolo Rizzatto with Luceplan, Elio Martinelli with Martinelli Luce, till the most recent ones such as Ingo Maurer, Enzo Catellani with Catellani & Smith and many others. When does a self-producing designer start to be considered an entrepreneur? Where does the thin line between small range production, self-production and proper production stand?

Within the European panorama, I’d like to mention two design dissertation projects that have now become points of reference in their sector. They are www.bugaboo.com, www.ic-berlin.de, www.freitag.ch, the last of which born in a school of art and design. The three of them gave birth to some successful start-ups, which would deserve a separate treatment.

What is a start-up?

From personal experience to the definition of a phenomenon, which is now very wide spread: the attempts to launch a new project, in other words, the start-ups.

Start-up refers to a starting company. In particular we are going to speak about design start-ups. A start-up is an organization with a business-plan that has the aim of growing. A design start-up as any other start-up has to have a starting business plan. This could consist of one’s own savings, private investors (angels), government funding (for example EU funding), crowd funding (such as that coming from a collection like Kick starter) or from family savings.

Unlike what is generally believed in design environment, the start-uppers (the founder of the start-up) are not always designers. Often there is a mixed organization with designers and people with different experiences, and sometimes none of the start-uppers is a designer.

Israel is the country with the highest percentage of start-ups in the world (one in 1844 citizens according to IMD’s World Competitiveness Yearbook, 2011). This spirit of the young entrepreneurs who bet on their own business instead of looking for a regular job, is also affecting the field of design.
The financial investments in the design start-ups in Israel have been low so far, if compared to the fields of Information Technology and biotechnologies. Nonetheless, the designers look for inspiration to the winning models of start-ups and get advice from the ‘castaways’ of the technological field, who try to produce their projects aiming at large consumption products.

The mosaic of the several realities in the world of design start-ups in Israel is manifold. I’ll try to give an idea of what it is by collecting the different reports that offer a picture of the various situations that one can encounter in this sector.

Ely Rozenberg is a design teacher in a number of schools, creator and co-editor of promisedesign

www.promisedesign.org


The pr-objects from the age of Adhocracy

Abstract: ‘Adhocracy' is the exhibition curated by Joseph Grima at the first Istanbul Design Biennial, but more that it is a concept, a tool, a tentative answer to the question of the evolving role of the practical design, the designer and the user-producer in our contemporary society.

In this article the ‘pr-ojects’ described provide some provocative answers to the following questions: Why are we talking about design in Istanbul? How does the open-source system and 3D printing change the production and authorship of objects? How does open-design empower the user? And thus, what are the social and political implications of networking and sharing knowledge of new technologies?

“… this world is carried by your hands. And men, Oh my men!”  (Hikmet, 1954, pp. 45-46)

1. Istanbul Design Biennial

In the so-called post-industrial or third industrial revolution era, as the Economist defined it last April, defining what design is today and what its role in the current context is, has become harder than ever.
Over these two years of preparation for what has become the core of the first Istanbul Design Biennial, promoted by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts (İKSV), it has been possible to activate a great many discussions with a range of individuals on both a local and international level.
With its vibrant energy, its multiplicity of activities, its contradictions and astonishing undefinable beauty, Istanbul is the embodiment of the general theme ‘Imperfection’ proposed by Dejan Sudijc.
Symposiums, workshops, parallel events and the two main exhibitions – ‘Musibet’ (from the Turkish for catastrophe) curated by Emre Arolat at the Istanbul Modern and ‘Adhocracy’ curated by Joseph Grima at the Galata Greek Elementary School – have tried to engage a wide range of people and to plunge them into an understanding of the chaos, the countless layers of the city, its multiple viewpoints as well as the blurring of boundaries among disciplines, the emergence of co-producers of information, objects, projects and initiatives that characterize the glocal arena of Istanbul.
This article will focus purely on the ‘Adhocracy’ exhibition curated by Joseph Grima and its international curatorial team made up of Elian Stefa, Ethal Baraona Pohl, Pelin Tan and Maurizio Bortolotti.
Starting from this exercise in co-operation, helps us to identify the common denominator of Adhocracy, but it does much more than this too.
Grima identifies the concept of adhocracy as opposed to bureaucracy, hierarchical economic systems and centralized political management. On the contrary ‘Adhocracy’ questions the limitations and rigidity of these systems and proposes alternative, hybrid bottom-up and top-down production practices.
Design is – once integrated with other disciplines – a way to propose new solutions and raise awareness on our rights. At the same time, the exhibition is conceived of as an open work in progress platform and aims to host seminars and to push forward discussions on some of the crucial issues of our contemporary society.

2. Process demonstration
In order to give you a general overview of the projects displayed in ‘Adhocracy’, and a better understand of them, and, at the same time, problematize the exhibition concept, I will summarise some of the requirements announced in the open call launched on the 14th of february 2012:

“We are looking for projects that:
– empower others through self-produced and collaborative design;
– experiment with innovative methodologies of manufacturing and production;
– are born from or rely on networks;
– push the boundaries of the open-source movement and their implications for everyday life;
– combine traditional techniques and know-how with new tools and technologies;
– have no author or too many authors to be counted
– challenge and push the boundaries of the accepted definition of design” (Grima, 2012, pp.88-89).

Therefore the exhibition itself moves very faraway from being the usual object-centred design exhibition and even when we do look at objects/machines or devices we do so in order to comprend the processes behind them and beyond to the actions which the user can easily learn from or contribute to. More than that these projects are central to the redefinition of the professional and cultural role of the designer today.
We can start by analysing the structure of the objects, as Jesse Howard demonstrates in Trasparent tools in which she proposes a set of household appliances – toaster, coffee grinder, vacuum cleaner – that users can produce, modify and repair by downloading a grid format containing plans for the single parts of the device from the OpenStructures system. At the same time this construction system aims to create a network of component user-producers in order to promote processes of co-creation.
Another project based on the sharing and social nature of Web 2.0 is the Open Source Ecology platform founded in 2003 by a group of activist farmers and scientists working in Ohio, who presented their Global Village Construction Set (GVCS), affordable equipment for the construction of over fifty OS industrial machines. On show in the exhibition is LifeTrac III, a low-cost and multipurpose open source tractor, which can be constructed in six days.
Open source projects are not only defining new methods of production and interaction among designers and users. As John Thackara’s (2011, pp. 44-45) argues “openness is more than a commercial and cultural issue. It’s a matter of survival”, as some of the Arduino-based devices show.
The cheap microcontroller board, created in 2005 at the Interaction Design Institute in Ivrea, has spawned a wide range of interactive products to satisfy personal needs.
Tacit by Steve Hoefer, Grathio Labs, for example, is an easy to assemble Arduino-based, hand-mounted navigation device for the visually impaired that measures the distance between objects (from 2 m to 3.5 m) rapidly and translates that into pressure on the wrist.
We are all aware that Arduino should be taught in high schools, expecially after having seen Alarma Sismos, a seismograph built with a Arduino microprocessor, the personal invention of Sebastian Alegria, a 14-year-old Chilean boy, which sends out automatic twitter alerts on seismic activity.
Some of these projects reflect the important theme of the interaction between craft and digital production with 3D printers and, whether we like it or not, sooner or later, we will be surrounded by the latter.
Essentially this paradigm shift, which is not yet easily perceptible, implies that we (both designers and potential user/producers) have to try to come up with different ways of thinking about the design of things, which will lead us to a deeper understanding of their inner structures and raise our awareness also on their material composition.
According to Neri Oxman, professor of Media Art&Science and director of the MIT Media LAB, 3D printing is bringing about a revolution in design – equivalent to Gutenberg’s invention of the movable-type press – which will lead to greater democratization of information and production of objects.

The Belgian studio Unfold, in collaboration with Turkish ceramists such as Tulya Madra & Firat Aykaç of Santimetre and Mustafa Canyurt of Istanbul, presents the open-source 3D printing project Stratigraphic Manufactory, from which 3D produced objects in pottery (mainly bowls and vases) are exhibited in a mock-up of a traditional craft shop in the near-by district of Şişhane and displayed in cases facing the windows with the Artisan électronique workshop in the background. Here Unfold explores the tension between handicraft and digital clay products.

By Unfold once more, this time the production of 3D printed objects becomes Kiosk 2.0, a mobile cart that questions the immediacy, flexibility and accessibility of this kind of production in the realm of public space. By accessing an open-source database of scanned digital models Kiosk 2.0 allows users to print false copies of iconic design objects (such as Aalto’s vase) and customize them according to their preferences.
Another particularly interesting interdisciplinary project that connects 3D manufacturing technology, architecture, food design and public space is Street Food Printing by José Ramon Tramoyeres, Paco Morales, Luis Fraguada and Deniz Manisalı, who have started experimenting with Fused Deposition machine deposits (usually known for prototyping plastic) for food stamps, such as chocolate or cheese, in some of Morales’ avant-garde dishes.

This project was exhibited for the first time at the “Future in the Making” fair, curated once again by Joseph Grima, at the Salone del Mobile, but for this Biennial, the designers were invited to modify it to the city context and involve people outside the exhibition space as well. So the initial food printing project became the futuristic cart Street Food Printing.
In fact, if you walk out into the streets of Istanbul, you will notice and be overwhelmed by the lively activities and informal street trades that are taking place in the streets, like Ayşe E. Coşkun Orlandi (2007, pp. 150-153), for example, describing the Biscuit seller (Tahtakale in Turkish, and the craft-assembled pushchair adapted for selling biscuits) both of which are their projects.
Unfortunately this article has had to leave out many other inspiring projects, but two of them represent the historic reference points particularly well: one is Re-reading Giancarlo De Carlo by Autlab and the other is Proposta per un’autoproduzione (Propos al for an Auto-project) by Enzo Mari (1974).
In the first one, Autlab, a collective of Roman architects, lays claim to the present day value of De Carlo’s polyhedric ideas, such as the social responsibility of architects in involving citizens in the design process – the inhabitants of Terni in the Villaggio Matteotti project for example – and thus empowering them, or his reflections in the review Spazio e Società on society as a machine in which buildings, objects and people mutually interact in the making of everyday life.

On the other hand, Mari’s lesson comes from a set of sixteen basic pieces of furniture in wood and the exhibition catalogue entitled Proposta per un’Autoproduzione, which became a sort of manifesto and political statement for the self-producing, do-it-yourself movement, while at the same time criticising the passive role of the consumer which the design industry of the day imposed.

3. Conclusions

Returning to the physical location of the exhibition and its theme, I would like to close with a provocative remark. In 2004 Richard Florida argued that economic development is strongly related to the 3 Ts which are: technology, talent (creativity) and tolerance.
Today Istanbul is not yet a 3 Ts city, but Florida foresees that in 2050 it will become one of the leading metropolises in the world, alongside Mumbai and San Paolo, where hopefully more Adhocratic practices will challenge the country’s weighty bureaucracy and top-down decision making processes.
Finally I will borrow the ironic and provocative manifesto of the Trading Station project, by Post, the Liverpool-Istanbul based group of female artistes, which declares: “Sharing destroys ownership of a product. Share information”. Prophet Muhammed also said: “Whoever is asked about a knowledge that he knows about and then hides in and keeps it away, he will be bridled on the day of judgments with a bridle of fire.”

Teresita Scalco, Università Iuav di Venezia, Science of Design, currently visiting researcher at SALT, Istanbul

Acknowledgments: This paper would not have been possible without the inspiring conversation and ideas shared with Joseph Grima, Luis E. Fraguada, Pelin Tan, Canay Tunçer and Moira Valeri to whom I wish to thanks deeply.

References

Coşkun Orlandi, A. (2007). Spontaneous Design in Istanbul, in Abitare, n. 472. Milan, pp. 150-153.

Florida, R. L., (2005). Cities and the creative class. New York, NY, London, UK. Routledge.

Grima, J. (2012, edited by). Adhocracy, catalogue exhibition of the Istanbul Design Biennial,  vol.3, Istanbul: IKSV, pp. 88-89.

Hikmet, N. (1954), Of your hands and their lies, in ‘Poems’, trans. Ali Yunus, New York: Masses & Mainstream, pp. 45-46.

Thackara J. (2011). Into the Open. In van Abel B., Evers L., Klaassen R., Troxler P. (editors) Open design now. Why design cannot remain exclusive. Amsterdam, H: BIS Publishers, pp. 44-45.

Trading Station newspaper, issue 2, publieshed 7 September 2012, available on-line at Share!, Trading Station project by POST (n.d.). http://www.postliverpool.com/projects.html. [Retrieved November, 10, 2012 from]


Editorial #09

PAD #9, the first issue in 2013, deals with matter very hot to young designers, researchers and design scholars: the evolution of design-production relationship.

In the digital era, the world travels at a very high, yet sometimes uneven, speed, and finance introduces turbulence shaking markets with unseen violence, while technology offers unbelievable opportunities of communicating and producing. How, in this context, does design practice and its relationship with production change? How does production innovate?

We put these questions to our network of correspondents throughout the Mediterranean world, and they came back proposing interesting cases, each peculiarly meaningful of a changing reality.

Many of them replied: Ely Rozenberg reports about the numerous start-ups phenomenon in Israel; Teresita Scalco about projects presented at the AdHocracy exhibition, recently held within the Istanbul Design Biennial, and their relationship with technologies; Gianni Di Matteo enters the discussion about the ‘adhocracy’ concept and its roots, telling about ‘adhocism’ as ‘the art of improvisation’ and the makers community in Africa, especially in Egypt; Ana Perković reports about design self-production in Croatia.

In the From section we also publish some interesting explorations, like: C. Bissas, V. Asfi and L. Angelou, from Greece, propose the Inaugural Flight of the papairlines sharing platform; the academic research taking place between Turkey and Italy, aimed at contributing to sustainable evolution of the agro-industrial system, which is, as known, one of the most important production systems for the development of the Mediterranean area and the whole world, as per directions of Horizon 2000, the EC tool supporting research and innovation in the 2014-2020 timeframe.

The Close Up sections offers a pragmatic reading of design-industry relationship in Italy, by means of a chronicle and three interviews to as many famous designers working in Italy, in order to understand the meaning of current situation and the re-emerging of self-production (more akin to design in Italian) phenomena.

The Reportage section, besides the usual appointment with Fabio’s eye, places some graphic and photographic readings of current events side by side with topics covered in the issue.

As a due comment, the answer to the questions we asked ourselves about the evolution of the design-production relationship comes mostly from the young design people. I say people because it’s a more and more numerous and global group, giving life to a digital and connected community, sharing tools, rules and values as well, informing social, collaboration and creative practices.

The world of internet and technologies, and their potential, is the preferred place by young people for experimenting, sharing open systems and co-working. This is perhaps such a difficult world to understand, for those who don’t live in it, but it-s the which will give a shape to the near future.

Young designers, self-producers, post-industrial craftsmen, makers, hacktivist, backyard inventors show an attitude to opening and sharing knowledge revealing a significant difference with recent traditions, in contrast to the design-firm world, which generated in Italy from the 80’s, after denying the ’68 ideologies.

Within project practice, young designers don’t restrict their competence to the aesthetical, morphological, typological and functional perspective of products, instead they open themselves to contaminations with different techniques, arts and disciplines. In this way, they carry on spontaneous processes of continuing experimentation rather than wait for the customer. This way if working in nowadays technological scenario stimulates the capability to redefine production strategies, as well as trigger self-organized and interactive processes, where the idea of process itself and the contribution of different skills become a new, flexible content, meeting to the needs of the preferred counterpart: society.

Young designers prove to drive change and innovation in all cases we’ve explored, although not always they are champions of entrepreneurship, enterprise or social-at-large development.Vision and design abilities is not enough anymore, management skills are required. And on this wish goes our greeting for the new year!

Cover photo: Studio mischer’traxler, Gradient Mashrabiya Sideboard. Photo © Fabio Gambina

Monkey business design Israel

Owner: Oded Friedland

Brand/ start up name: Monkey business design Israel Ltd

Product: ‪We focus on developing original, innovative, affordable gift items.‬ Our company handles development, production and distribution.

Type of organization: Family firm.

Partners: Oded Friedland (age 45), founder of Oded, industrial designer and Omri Friedland (age 47). ‪Oded is responsible for the creative side of things, and manages product development.‬ Omri studied economics in the Tel-Aviv University, worked in the music Industry in the UK for a decade and joined Oded as a full partner in 2002, taking over the business and financial sides of things, turning the struggling design studio into a thriving business.‬ Omri handles the international clients, finance and logistics.‬

When and how did the project originate?  Oded was founded in 1994, after graduating in Industrial design at the Bezalel Art and Design Academy, in Jerusalem where he is now teaching a course on Design Entrepreneurship.‬ The frustration of trying and failing to sell my designs and ideas to other companies, led me to a decision to try and do it myself.

How much did you invest to start the company? Step by step, I used funds that I brought in from design services to invest in developing and marketing my own products.‬

Who invested the money? ‪Mum & Dad‬

How far have you gone with the project?  ‪We have been in the business for almost 20 years, and have established the brand in the international design trade and society.‬

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product?  Each step is a development, but we have had several small leaps over the years related to products that generated growth, the first leap was Dolica in 1999, the second was the Doorganizer in 2005. Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up It’s a long and winding road, with many ups and downs, and over the years we had our motivation breakdowns, due to product failures or financial difficulties, but we always had the belief, the patience, the perseverance and the family back up, to make it work.‬

What is your advice for young design entrepreneurs?  I would recommend small beginnings, with the first products the learning curve is very steep, there are so many mistakes to be made and so much to learn even with the simplest of products, so before you step into deeper waters, tread some shallow ones.‬ I would also recommend a business partner to every creative individual, the creative energy collides with doing the business side of things, it is very difficult to do both, and most creative are bad at business, let someone else do the ‘dirty’ work for you.‬ What is your advice for young design entrepreneurs 
‪You must be very passionate for what you are doing, so choose territories that really interest you and that you enjoy working on hour by hour day by day, this is what will provide the energy and motivation to pass the difficult times.‬

monkeybusiness.co.il

Luka Knezevic Strika for Sinestezija

This year’s Festival Sinestezija continued to spread creative energy, this time exploring the ‘Exotica’ theme. This year’s fest outlasted the 2011’s by three days and the program included exhibitions, performances, workshops, multimedia shows, music concerts. It completely transformed the Old town of Herceg Novi into an  exotic playground, with guests from Montenegro and the whole region.

This photo reportage tells a story about Sinestezija 2012 viewed through the eyes of the official photographer of the festival Luka Knezevic Strika, who had lots of success in showing the true spirit of the festival, taking part in it and at the same time being absolutely invisible while catching these memorable moments. Known for his professional as well as his personal projects, he is a member of a photography collective called Belgrade Raw which explores Belgrade through photography.

www.sinestezija.me – www.lukaknezevicstrika.com www.belgraderaw.com

Walk on Map

Owner: Eli Jacobson, industrial designer.

Brand/ start up name: Walk on Map

Product: Flip-flops with city maps on them.

Type of organization: individual firm.

When and how did the project originate? I went back to Israel after a long stay in Milan. I opened a design studio dealing with project services. On the hundredth anniversary of Tel Aviv I wanted to create a product that mirrored the spirit of the city: its colours, rhythm and humour.

How much did you invest to start the company? 8000 Euros

Who invested the money? Myself

How far have you gone with the project? After its success in Tel Aviv I obtained the copyright to use the official map of New York, and started to export to the USA. At the moment I’m working on customer-made orders and on new projects.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product? In the moment in which I had the idea I already knew it was doable and I started to look for suppliers and factories for the production.

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up? No, there hasn’t.

What is your advice for young design entrepreneurs? You have to think about simple productions, never neglect marketing, branding and selling at the beginning. To have only a good idea is not enough. The success of your product depends on your ability to produce a finished product, distribute it and sell it at the right price.

www.walkonmap.com

Studio Ve

Owner: Shai Carmon (34 anni), Ben Klinger (28 anni), both gradued.

Brand/start up name: Studio Ve.

Product: We are a design studio. Our first project was a wall clock.

Type of organization: We deal with all the different phases of the process, from the idea, to the production, marketing and distribution. We set up a website for online shopping and we even delivery to the shops in Israel.

When and how did the project originate?  The idea was born during my design studies at HIT (Holon Institute of Technology). Shai did an MA in Mathematics and his dissertation was about, among other things, the Riemann Surface. The concept of the clock was inspired by Riemannian Manifold (http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superficie_di_Riemann). To explain this concept I use the example of a winding staircase. If we look from the side and we see a person climbing the stairs, it looks as if the person is going to the left and then to the right. But if we look from the top we can see the person walking in circles.

How much did you invest to start the company?  The first series containing 2000 pieces cost 12.000,00 euros, for the production of the plastic matrixes and the raw materials, of which we bought a huge amount in order to cut the costs.

Who invested the money?  We made a video and we collected some funds on kickstarter.com, a platform for group funding. The video explains the concept and the reasons for investing in it. We got support from all over the world in exchange for a free clock. The funds collection lasted for a month and we got 29.000,00 euros from 650 web surfers, of which only 14 were from Israel. We advertised on 50 different sites. Kickstarter is only opened to those who have a fiscal position in the USA or in the UK. But there are other platforms such as indiegogo.

How far have you gone with the project?  Having already sold 2000 pieces, we are now working on the second edition. We sold a big stock to a US client who works in the field of gift items. We’re working on a new product in order to widen the clock series.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product?  When we got the samples for plastic injection fro China, then we realized it was a real product. The duplication into thousands of pieces gives you a totally different feeling from the one-off or the limited edition.

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up?  Luckily there weren’t any critical moments in which we would have liked to give up. When you work in pair, the project is split between the two and this makes the workload lighter during a crisis. There have been difficult moments though, when we didn’t know whether we would have managed to reach our goals but in the end everything went well, despite some delays.

What is your advice for young design entrepreneurs?  We only recommend to try and dare! This is the moment to make all your mistakes in order to learn and to not repeat them in the future.

manifoldclock.com
manifold clock on kickstarter

Studio Itai Bar-On

Owner: Itai e Aharon Bar On

Brand/ start up name: Studio Itai Bar-On

Product: Coating, furniture and lighting systems made to measure, especially made of concrete.

Type of organization: Family firm.

Partners: CEO Aviram Bar On; assembling responsible: Idan Bar On

When and how did the project originate?  I had the idea while I was studying Industrial Design at university; it was my final dissertation project. My father owns a building company and we always had concrete sacks at the back of our house. During a course at the Shenkar College of Engineering & Design I used the concrete and fell in love with it. I liked to create a clash, a conceptual clash, between soft and hard.

How much did you invest to start the company? 60.000,00 Euros.

Who invested the money? The Keren Shemesh Fund for young entrepreneurs. Obviously I also put in my own savings and my father helped me, too.

How far have you gone with the project? With time and experience I got to know the matter in depth and I tried to push it beyond its performance limits. Recently I developed a special technology for curvy handicrafts in concrete mortar that I presented at the last Salone del Mobile di Milano, in the Ventura area.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product? After a year of development and economical investment I felt I was ready to go out in the market as a designer with my products.

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up? As we are a young firm and this is a difficult time, there are moments of crisis. But this is the destiny of those who choose to be independent. I would have never given up my project.

What is your advice for young design entrepreneurs? My advice to the young and ambitious entrepreneurs is to stay faithful to their ‘beliefs’ and never stop working hard. Never listen to those who try to demoralize you or who do not encourage you.

www.itaibaron.com

Myway

Owner: Nimrod Riccardo Sapir, Industrial Designer

Brand/start up name:  MYWAY EV LTD

Product: Electric Foldable Scooter.

Type of organization: Limited series production. We are working on a second edition of scooters.

Partners: Oran Walach, MBA in economics and marketing, and Mr. Dov Meirzon, mechanical engineer.

When and how did the project originate? After I was made redundant by a start-up that developed transformable stroller bicycle I had an idea for my own start-up. So I projected and electric bending scooter that can fit into a backpack. A year later, having not found any investors, I decided to start anyway by making a simple product, even simpler than the initial idea.

How much did you invest to start the company? About 310.000,00 euros, including the costs for the design patent and my salary. For the production of the first 100 pieces we used about  55.000,00 euros.

Who invested the money? My family, friends and I after obtaining bank loans.

How far have you gone with the project? We are working towards a turning point for production and mass distribution. We assemble the scooters and we market them in our exhibitory space.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product? Never. I’m joking. 18 months ago, when the sales started.

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up? Every other day, especially today. I can’t sleep at night, because I worry about work.

What is your advice for young design entrepreneurs? Do not invest too much, start small and verify that it works. The important thing is to have a flexible mind. Do not trust anybody; only trust yourselves. At the same time, do not fall in love with your idea. Never give up!

mywayi.com

Guy Mishaly design studio

Owner: Guy Mishaly

Brand/start up name: Guy Mishaly design studio

Product: Blast chair by explosion.

When and how did the project originate? The studio was established 1 year ago, right after I graduated the product design studies at the Bezalel Academy of arts and design, in Jerusalem, Israel.
The studio focuses on designing furniture, light fixtures, and space for companies and private consumers.

Blast chairs by explosion was my graduation project at the Bezalel Institute.
The starting point to this project was how to navigate energy, creating by manipulating energy that is naturally used to harm and destroy.
Another goal was to invent a system that in the same way of use will always provide different results.
All of the above got me to this project, where I create basic boxes and cylinders from 1mm of steel sheet metal and by locating explosives (looks like electric cables, filled up with explosive material) around them in specific locations and pushing a button that detonates the explosive material, the metal rips and folds into a stool. No material disappears or blows away. The weight of the box before the explosion and the weight of the stool that comes out are the same. The box becomes a stool with seat and legs by the explosion itself and there is nothing done to it after. That’s the way it comes out. There will never be 2 stools that are identical.

How much did you invest to start the company? Getting into such a project required a beginning amount of 4000 Euros.

Who invested the money? Myself

How far have you gone with the project? Blast was made in a small series of 12 pieces.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product? The research was the main part of the project. When the first chair came out by the correct recipe after months of negative results and dozens of explosions, that’s when

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up?  I realized I reached the product-the goal I was aiming for.
 Sitting on the first chair made me realize that in the art & design world, there is no such thing as “not possible”.

www.guymishaly.com

Greenbo

Brand/start up name: Greenbo

Product: Innovative products for gardening. Our first product is a vase-flower box for balcony balustrades.

Type of organization: Design start-up. The company was born three years ago. It produces and markets its products in Israel and abroad.

The partners are: Maya Golan, a lawyer who deals with the legal sector and the sales; Meir Haklay, a Judo school manager, is responsible for the company development; Avi Youlus, engineer and lawyer, is responsible for the economic area; Roy Joulus, studied design at Ascola Meimeid College, has a BA in business economics, is responsible for the sales and marketing (35 years old).

When and how did the project originate? We started developing the idea in 2006. Then, in 2008 we left our jobs in the Hi-tech field. The idea originated from the wish to cultivate green in small flats in Tel Aviv, even in small balconies where there is no space for earth and vases. After many trials on the vase suspension, we put together two old flower boxes and set them astride on a balustrade with the help of a metallic rest, which became rusty though. It was right then that we got the idea of a strong plastic vase in a wide range of colours, one and twofold, which could be put astride any balustrade. So from a banal vase it became a design piece.

How much did you invest to start the company? Dozens of thousands of euros.

Who insteded the money? We invested our savings. I (Roy) collected my parents’ pension fund and we started some mortgages on our flats and then we obtained other loans. The Keren Shemesh fund for young innovative entrepreneurs really helped us, both as a mentor and with a loan.

How far have you gone with the project? We distribute to about 500 nursery gardens, design shops, flower shops and supermarket chains in Israel, Europe (Carrefour, Casino, Castorama), the United States (The Home Depot, Commerce Corporation), in Australia and Latin America we have distributors and agents.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product? It happened when the first series came out, when we saw the products coming out of the matrixes and we started wrapping them, all night long. In that moment it was clear that the adventure had started.

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up? There always are moments of crisis on the way. When the activity grows, the risk of losing everything rises, but we never considered giving up. The people working at Greenbo know how to deal with hardships. This awareness reinforced our association.

A handbook for young design entrepreneurs?

  1. The organizing phase is the longest and the most important. Here you have to understand if your enterprise is competitive, risky and how many resources it needs.
  2. Identify your weaknesses. You need to fill in these spaces with a partner who can complement your skills; otherwise you’ll have to face everything by yourselves with a big effort.
  3. Choose a subject you’re passionate about. Entrepreneurship requires many hours of our daily life. If you don’t like what you do you won’t be able to develop the activity in the course of time.
  4. An entrepreneur sacrifices a lot of his private life, a lot more than any employee. Nobody will do what you don’t do.
  5. Do not fall in love with your products. An objective point of view is the instrument, which allows us to learn from our mistakes and to mend them.
  6. The customer is always right. The company exists thanks to its customers. Keep in touch with your customers.
  7. Ask and learn from other people, because you don’t know everything. If you don’t become expert in your field, your clients will notice it and you’ll lose them.
  8. Find an organization to guide and assist you in the beginning. In Israel the Keren Shemesh fund is a non-profit organization providing professional support and loans to new companies.
  9. Try to grow an ‘elephant skin’ for the difficult moments, but stay humble and balanced even when things are going at full sail.
  10. The world is made of people, not products. Behind every activity there are the people. Develop contacts and create collaborations. A planted seed today will give its fruits tomorrow.

Anything else? In July 2012 Greenbo won the Red dot Award (product design winner). Moreover Greenbo also won the second YBI prize (The Prince’s Youth Business International), a contest founded by the Prince of Wales and Barclays bank for the young innovative firms.

greenbo.co
http://www.youtube.com/mygreenbo

Gaga & Design

Owner: Yaacov Kaufman, retired design professor at Bezalel Academy of Art & Design in Jerusalem; Avi Bourla (over 50) furniture importer and owner of furniture shop Primitive in Tel Aviv.
Brand/start up name: Gaga & Design
Product: Contemporary furniture for interiors and exteriors.

Type of organization: Design start-up. The project studio is in Tel Aviv and the production in Indonesia. Yaacov Kaufman is one of the most famous Israeli designers. He collaborates with the main European furniture and lighting systems producers and he mentored several generations of young designers at Bezalel Academy of Art & Design in Jerusalem.

When and how did the project originate?  We started developing our products in 2007. The first collection was exhibited in 2010. Our first customers were retailers such as Tollmanís in Israel or Pesch and Leptien 3 in Germany.

Who invested the money?  Self-funding

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up? We’ll exhibit our new collection with the designers Tal Gur, Rami Tareef and Neil Nenner at the IMM fair in Cologne in January 2013. For us it’ll be the third participation to an international trade fair.

www.gagaanddesign.com

Freshdesign

Owner: Gal Ben Arav, industrial designer laureato alla Bezalel Academy of Art & Design (34 anni).

Brand/ start up name: Freshdesign

Product: Sustainable urban furniture in limited series.

Type of organization: Individual firm.

When and how did the project originate? My production was born out of my final dissertation project. The bamboo bench was inspired by a historical photo of the place near which I grew up, the Híahula marsh. The marsh there used to be drained with big bamboo sheaves.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product? At the beginning I used fresh green bamboo, and I realized that when the bamboo dries up its volume diminishes. Therefore the structure where the bench legs are joined with the bamboo became instable. In order to solve this problem I chose to use black dried bamboo, which besides making the bench more stable, it gives an elegant touch.

Earthquake proof table

Owner: Ido Bruno, professore di industrial design; Arthur Brutter, industrial designer.

Brand/start up name: Earthquake Proof Table

Product: We sell the rights to produce and market our tables both in Israel and in the world.

Type of organization: It’s a mixed structure, between a start-up and a development and marketing platform for a dissertation project for the industry.

When and how did the project originate?  Everything started at Bezalel Academy with a dissertation project by Arthur Brutter tutored by Professor Ido Bruno. After that, Ido and Arthur became partners in this project carried out in collaboration with Bezalel Laboratories L.t.d. The last has the right to sell the project in respect of the designer’s royalties.

How much did you invest to start the company? At the beginning the investment was quite low, 1.000,00/2.000,00 euros. But afterwards we needed thousands of euros for the patent.

Who invested the money? The Israeli producer and retailer (http://www.admeraz.co.il) invested thousands of euros to obtain an engineering assessment.

How far have you gone with the project? We are now at an advanced phase of negotiation with investors and distributors from all over the world.

When did you understand that the project had overcome the ideational phase and had become a product? At the end of the studies we had a contact with an Israeli producer who wanted to distribute our product in Israel, so we started adjusting the table to mass production.

Has there been a moment when you wanted to give up?  Actually our project proved already functional and able to save some lives since the beginning. What we found out later, was that it is not so important how good your idea is, because marketing is very difficult anyway. In our opinion the table must be sold to schools around the world, which means to state institutions, such as the Ministry of Education, etc. But we found out that a lot of these institutions often have to deal with obstacles and reasons that are against common sense. These situations have caused a lot of disappointment and moments of crisis, which however are part of any long development process (2 years for us). The important thing is to be able to see the light at the end of the tunnel.

What is your advice for young design entrepreneurs? The main thing, in my opinion, is to get experience. I suggest that every young designer should do the ‘acid test’ in the entrepreneurship: take a small idea and try to promote it professionally. Nowadays there are a lot of platforms for project development and funding collection, one of those will definitely help you to get some experience in every aspect linked to the entrepreneurship.


Design and Production in the Croatian Social Context

Abstract: From the historical point of view, there has never been a continious relationship between the Croatian production sector and Croatian product designers. The situation we are facing today is more positive at the moment. On one side we have the renewal of collaboration between designers and the most successfull industries on the domestic market, and on the other, there are some young talented individuals who self produce and whose products have already been widely recognized as neccessary and valuable.

Let’s bring to our minds the fact that the idea of the term design was first introduced to the Croatian language in the late 1960’s.

These years were marked by an intensive struggle to position the design practise in the real circumstances of mass production, with emphasis on the integration of artistic and technological skills into the production process.

In the meantime, many strong changes in the local political and social context happened, which influenced the Croatian production sector, which for this reasons couldn’t remain constant.

Apart from this, today we again have the chance to whitness the appearance of a new, more positive surrounding, characterized by the renewal of the relationship between the designer and the industry and also new thoughts on the role of the design practise in Croatian society.

In this context, on one side we can see the industry, announcing public contests, inviting designers to collaborate, and designers on the other side, responding quickly with successful solutions.

Speaking of domestic market in general, it could be described as a quiet little space, from the more “global” point of view, with two dominant production sectors – food and furniture industry.

It isn’t therefore surprising that the most successful examples of collaboration between designers and industry are deriving exactly from the previously mentioned sectors.

Here I will mention the company Kvadra which has accomplished a worldwide success, by launching new sofas and chairs, which they have developed with Croatian designers, for the domestic and foreign market.

On the other side, it is more and more evident that there is a growing number of young designers as self-producers. For them, this choice how to work, represents a huge challenge in trying to self-produce and self-promote. Very often they work completely alone, carrying all the costs of production and promotion.

A young Croatian product designer Ana Tevsic, who managed to promote her work successfully in the international London fair Tent, said that the most difficult problem she constantly faces is a lack of craftsmen or small companies who are willing to help her to develop ideas into prototypes and small series of products.

Matea Topic, also one of the Croatian successful young designers claimed that she has learnt with time to compromise between her wishes and actual possibilities, which can in fact result with some new discoveries, useful for further product development![1]

In addition, it is important to mention the great aid of social networks and web shops which help young designers to self-promote. Many of them, for instance, have their own Facebook fun pages as one of the most popular channels for self-promotion.

To conclude this short story, I could say that in Croatia we can also notice this growing social phenomenon of the appearance of young designer self-producers, working mostly in the local context.

This local context should be the greatest source of inspiration and possibilities for designers to contribute with new ideas to the material world. This is the area in which lies the opportunity to be unique and local. It is I think the best way to help the domestic design scene to survive in the global context.

Ana Perkovic is a lighting designer, researcher in industrial design and PAD’s correspondent from Croatia.


[1] Interview  with Mrs Ana Tevsic (product designer) and Mrs Matea Topic (product designer).

Bibliography

Margolin, V. & Vukic, F. (2009). Croatian design now/Hrvatski dizajn sad. Zagreb, HR:UPI-2M plus.

Vukic, F. (2003). Od oblikovanja do dizajna. Zagreb, HR: Meandar.

Food couture

Food Couture photo-collage exhibition was displayed within the “Agrindustrial 2012” congress’s exhibitions (26-28 April 2012, İzmir University of Economics). This exhibition showcases 23 works, including photographs drawn from some selected academic profiles. The exhibition has been brought together on the work of Dilek Himam’s designs, Argun Tanrıverdi’s photographs, Jörn Fröhlich’s visual display and concept designs, Şölen Kipöz’s and Gökhan Mura’s conceptual framework. 20 portrait photos of people with their distinctive food and fashion taste are represented with photo collages of customised and wearable food.  The eclectic designs made of the fresh and delicious parts of the fruits and vegetables push the limits towards sustaining the spectacle while presenting an attitude towards clothing. The dramatization of the portraits and the cultural codes help the construction of the design scenario.  The unpretentious and ecological second part consists of the clothes made of pieces of fruits and vegetables that are not used or thrown away. The imperfect deconstructive aesthetic created by using those materials, which actually help protecting the ecological balance when used correctly, points an attitude towards freedom and purification from fashionable clothes.

Agrindustrial Design

Abstract: The term “agrindustrial” was introduced in İzmir as the title of the 1st symposium in April 2005 for the first time, and anticipated the current lines of research as defined by the European Union. Today the issue of food and agriculture along with their related activities is one of the main subjects of scientific research, as defined in priority by Horizon 2020, the instrument of the European Commission to support research and innovation for the period 2014-2020. This article gives brief information about what has been done and experienced within the events based on the theme of 'design in agricultural industries' thus 'agrindustrial design'.

1st Agrindustrial Design Symposium

On 27-29 April 2005, Department of Industrial Design at the Izmir University of Economics organized “Agrindustrial Design: 1st International Product and Service Design Symposium and Exhibition on Agricultural Industries: Olive Oil, Wine and Design”.

Designers, producers, researchers, and educators studying specifically on agricultural and geographical identity based products and services, wine and olive oil in the first case, were aimed to be brought together to constitute an international information and design platform sharing economical and scientific values. For three days at the symposium, there were 3 keynote speakers, 36 paper presentations, 1 panel, 11 exhibitions, and 1 workshop with the participants from Turkey, Italy, Spain, Thailand, England, New Zealand and Brazil.

The keynotes of this first symposium were Prof. Ezio Manzini, Prof. Ken Friedman and Prof. Nihat Aktan.

The issues discussed within 36 paper presentations were as follows:

1) The role of design in agricultural industries to develop value-added products and services (a variety of papers was on value creation within strategic design, do-it-yourself, agro-tourism, label design, fashion design);

2) Developing distinct brand identity and reflecting the geographical identity to the products and the services of agricultural industries (a variety of papers was on creating new networks, branding, product innovation, agro-industry, agro-tourism and boutique shops; all of which discussed geographical identity within different agricultural products such as olive oil, wine, tea, and rakı -aniseed alcohol drink- from different geographies such as Australia, Thailand, Brazil and Turkey);

3) Sustainability and ecologically applied designs in agricultural products and services (a variety of papers was on food-system innovation, organic fashion concept, organic life concept, sustainability of olive oil mills, eco-design in wine industry);

4) Exporting strategies, retail sale and e-business in terms of contemporary marketing methods, and their relationships within design (a variety of papers was on logistics, marketing, development of different agricultural industries –including Aegean agricultural sector- such as dried tomatoes, textiles, and new hybrid corn fodder);

5) Legal arrangements, intellectual properties rights, and design (a variety of papers was on historical legal arrangements, industrial rights and design experiences on olive oil and wine sectors in Turkey).

At the closing panel; design, and agricultural products and services were evaluated with economical, academic and industrial points of views. The sectors of label, glass-bottle, packaging and food-drink gave messages to each other.

During the symposium, the universities and the companies exhibited their projects and products. The universities were Izmir University of Economics, Istanbul Technical University and Dokuz Eylul University within Industrial Design, Fashion Design and Textile Design Departments. The companies that made exhibitions were Elda Marketing and Commerce with Efe Rakı, TARİŞ with Tariş Olive Oil, Sevilen Wines, Yazgan Wines, Alvisual –Visual Communication Systems with ‘Aion Olive Oil’, Külahçıoğlu Wine Coolers, and Gusto Magazine. There was only one workshop, which was about brand development.

2nd Agrindustrial Design Congress

Seven years later, on 26-28 April 2012, ‘Agrindustrial Design: 2nd International Product and Service Design Congress and Exhibition on Agricultural Industries: Mediterranean, Food and Design’ was organized at the Izmir University of Economics.

The organization had the same structure of triple concepts with three institutions, three organizers, one for each concept: ‘Design’ was coordinated by Asst. Prof. Dr. A. Can Özcan from Izmir University of Economics, ‘Mediterranean Design’ was coordinated by Prof. Marinella Ferrara from Politecnico di Milano, and ‘Food’ was coordinated by Prof. K. Nazan Turhan from Mersin University (from MU in the beginning, from IUE at the end).

Besides Politecnico di Milano and Mersin University; other partner institutions of the congress were DESIS Turkey –Design for Social Innovation and Sustainability, ASD –Packaging Manufacturers Association in Turkey, ETMK –Industrial Designers Society of Turkey Izmir Branch, PAD Journal, ABADIR –Accademia di Belle Arti, and TETÖP –Industrial Design Students Platform of Turkey. The congress was supported by TÜBİTAK –The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey; and the sponsoring companies and other supporting institutions were Aegean Exporters Association, ÇAYKUR –General Directorate of Tea Enterprises, IZTO –Izmir Chamber of Commerce, Anavarza Honey Company, Pamukkale Wines, ELDA Marketing and Commerce, Zeytin İskelesi Olive Oil Company and Yörük Süt Milk Company.

From olive oil, wine and design to food, Mediterranean and design; the concepts were more challenging both in scale and identity within this second event. Design was not the focus and driving concept as in the first event, but one of the three mainstream issues with food and Mediterranean. The locality of the first event has been transformed into a more universal and immediate issues, and the term Agrindustrial Design has been developed silently in between two events to be a concept accepted by a wide range of parties from designers to researchers, from engineers to managers both in academic and professional circles.

Following the same aim of the first symposium and giving an emphasis on the importance of cultural and geographical identity on the creation of design, this second congress was defined as the intersection of design and food fields, which was geographically framed by the Mediterranean region. Based on the concepts of Mediterranean, food and design; papers, workshops and exhibitions were invited to the congress. For three days at the congress, there were 4 keynote speakers, 9 sessions including 24 paper presentations and the closing panel, 2 poster presentations, 13 exhibitions and 6 workshops with the participants from Turkey, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Brazil, South Africa, Croatia, Finland, United Kingdom and USA.

The keynotes of the congress were Emeritus Prof. Victor Margolin from University of Illinois at Chicago, Prof. Mahir Turhan from Mersin University, Prof. Anna Meroni from Politecnico di Milano, and Prof. Keshavan Niranjan from University of Reading. The issues discussed within 24 paper presentations and the closing panel were as follows:

1) Places, rituals and cultures of eating: Wine consumption spaces by means of socialization –Alaçatı; lighting design in the environment of food shopping, cooking and eating; eating habits and changing dining patterns;

2) A Fusion: Food and Design in History, Culture and Fashion: Food museums –some Italian examples; history of oriental tobacco history and its products; food display by means of fashion, design of promotional rakı glasses;

3) Designing for Food Industry: Production process of chips making; innovative composite material for smart packaging –cold storage of perishable products;

4) Sustainable Food and Food Pedagogy: Innovative system for the production of sun-dried vegetables; participatory design in children’s diet –strategies to design public services.

5) Strategies for Local Food & Design Scenarios I-II: Strategic design applied to terroirs –a Brazilian genuine local cheese; sustainable economy and slow city concept –Seferihisar; global network –two perspectives on the value chain within the case of two Portuguese companies; alternative design understanding within permaculture –Marmariç case;

6) Food and Packaging Design: New aesthetic trends in food packaging; Agrodesign –design and business in Western Almería, Spain; resilient products for small-scale farming in South Africa;

7) Spaces, Rituals, Cultures of Eating and Drinking (Turkish session): Global interior design trends and local rituals of eating and drinking; the effects of Mediterranean culture on Turkish interior eating spaces; space, culture and identity –the effects of Mediterranean culture;

8) From Local to Global: Cultural Processes, Strategies (Turkish session): Experience and packaging design of figs; eating culture as cultural heritage –slow foods of Cittàslow Seferihisar; development of the agricultural industry and the export – a proposal;

9) Closing Panel –DESIS Turkey: DESIS (Design for Social Innovation and Sustainability) is a global network with the aim to promote design-led sustainable social changes. In this panel, Prof. Dr. Özlem Er, the coordinator of the ITU DESIS Lab (Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Product Design), shared former projects that were carried out in Turkey which are in line with DESIS aims and methods. In addition, the co-organizers of the congress shared their views about the event.

The poster presentations were about design for new sustainable products –food industry and catering services; and tasting, eating and consuming –food design departures in ethic, aesthetic and technology.

During the congress; designers, academics and researchers from different institutions and universities exhibited their projects and products. There were student projects about displaying food and fashion, sustainable products within ‘agrindustrial design’ concept, present and past of Turkish tea culture, cultural exchange between Tunisia and Italy regarding the food and dining culture, poster presentations and can-packaging that were from design departments of Izmir University of Economics, Istanbul Technical University and Istituto Statale d’Arte ‘Vincenzo Ragusa e Otama Kiyohara’. There were projects about intersection of food culture and fashionable clothing, creative potential of Slow Fashion Movement within the contemporary fashion movement, Marmariç permaculture project, instant granulated drink packaging and scaled tea packaging by academics and researchers from Izmir University of Economics, Mersin University and Mersin Chamber of Industry and Commerce. There were projects of designers about fish skin compositions, old Izmir t-shirts by Aynizm Company, and olive harvesting machine by Nesne EMT Company.

The workshops of the congress were about finding creative solutions for becoming extinct local seeds, permaculture philosophy as a new design perspective, dresses by used papers, exploring emotions connected to food for product development, design approach to the food lifecycle by means of digital platforms for socializing, unexpected combinations of simple and local ingredients. The participants were from Slow Food Urla organization, Servili Garden Farming and Education Centre, Aynizm Company, Aalto University, and Iuav University of Venice.

All these experiences covering almost seven years seemed to prove at least one thing that there won’t be another seven years to realize the 3rd Agrindustrial Design event.

Dr. Elif Kocabıyık, Izmir University of Economics, Department of Industrial Design
elif.kocabiyik@ieu.edu.tr

Asst. Prof. Dr. A. Can Özcan, Izmir University of Economics, Department of Industrial Design
can.ozcan@ieu.edu.tr

References

Ferrara, M., Özcan, A.C. & Turhan, N. (2012). Agrindustrial Design 2012: Mediterranean, Food, Design. In Proceedings from 2nd International Product and Service Design Congress and Exhibition on Agricultural Industries: Mediterranean, Food and Design. Izmir University of Economics, TR: Izmir.

Özcan A.C., Kocabıyık, E. & Tuna Ultav, Z. (2006) (eds.). Proceedings from 1st International Product and Service Design Symposium and Exhibition on Agricultural Industries: Olive Oil, Wine and Design book. Izmir University of Economics, TR: Izmir.

Izmir University of Economics. (2005) 1st Agrindustrial Design Symposium. TR: Izmir University of Economics. Retrieved November, 2012, from http: //fadf.ieu.edu.tr/agd2005/

Izmir University of Economics. (2012) 1st Agrindustrial Design Symposium. TR: Izmir University of Economics. Retrieved November, 2012, from http: //fadf.ieu.edu.tr/agd2o12/

Fabio’s eye 09

Preparing the issue n. 9 of PAD we asked Fabio Gambina for his intepretation of the Design & Production Today theme.
His shots are characterized by an evocative language in some cases, and a descriptive on in others, while exploring some production processes in microelectronics. This is a photographic story made of partially out of focus frames alternating between macro and micro views. The images tell about new places of work, new tools and ways ofproduction, thus remarking the signs of movement toward new ways of thinking and making the project.